Barbara Montero (2006). Proprioceiving Someone Else’s Movement. Philosophical Explorations 9 (2):149 – 161.
Proprioception – the sense by which we come to know the positions and movements of our bodies – is thought to be necessarily confined to the body of the perceiver. That is, it is thought that while proprioception can inform you as to whether your left knee is bent or straight, it cannot inform you as to whether someone else’s knee is bent or straight. But while proprioception certainly provides us with information about the positions and movements of our own (…) bodies, I will argue that it does more than that. Surprising as this may sound, one can proprioceive someone else’s movement. To show this, I first present the results of some studies that suggest that in seeing others move, we kinesthetically represent their movement in our bodies. I then argue, by means of an analogy to prosthetic vision, that such ‘kinesthetic vision’ should count as proprioceiving others move.